Milan (English: or ; Italian: Milano [miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard: Milan [miˈlãː] (Milanese variant)) is the capital of Lombardy and the second most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,363,180 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,231,000. Its continuously built-up urban area (that stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres (730 square miles), ranking 4th in the European Union. The wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the middle and early modern age.
Milan is considered a leading Alpha Global City, with strengths in the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks and companies. In terms of GDP, it has the third largest economy among European cities and the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe."